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Gastritis biopsy

Gastric tissue biopsy and culture: MedlinePlus Medical

Gastritis is a general term for a group of conditions with one thing in common: inflammation of the lining of the stomach. The inflammation of gastritis is most often the result of infection with the same bacterium that causes most stomach ulcers. Regular use of certain pain relievers and drinking too much alcohol also can contribute to gastritis Chronic mucosal inflammatory changes leading to mucosal atrophy and epithelial metaplasia, usually without erosions. Most cases are type B or non-autoimmune gastritis. Associated with chronic Helicobacter pylori infection ( Am J Surg Pathol 2006;30:242 ), toxins (alcohol, tobacco), reflux of bilious duodenal secretions (post-antrectomy or other.

Stomach Biopsy - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Typically, A biopsy is also performed in which a small sample of the gut cells are extracted from three locations usually. These samples are analyzed in a lab to test for the presence of eminent gastritis-inducing pathogens (especially H. Pylori) Biopsy from area of nodular gastric mucosa. Positive stains. Lymphocytes are predominately CD3 positive T cells with CD8 co-expression Sample pathology report. Stomach, biopsy: Corpus and antral mucosa with chronic inactive gastritis with increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (see comment As a corollary to the Sydney System, the Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) was proposed as a way to stage gastric atrophy. In this system, the stage of AG is determined by combining the degree of atrophy with the location of the biopsy Gastritis: Biopsy sampling protocols and histological assessments The rationale behind gastric biopsy sampling takes into account the physiopathological compartmentalization of the gastric mucosa. Already in embryo, the gastric sac consists of two (functional, histological) compartments, and they remain distinct after birth Serological biopsy. The clinical value of combinations of serological tests for assessing the morphological and functional status of the gastric mucosa has been extensively addressed. In AIG, the typical serological profile includes autoantibodies against intrinsic factor and parietal cells

Gastric tissue biopsy and culture: Procedure, results, and

In addition, all patients with genetic hemochromatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy in our department between 1998 and 2003 who also had gastric biopsies were identified from the surgical pathology files and included in the study (n = 3) localized continuous erythema, friability, & congestion of the mucosa with no bleeding in antrum. compatible with non-erosive gastritis? biopsy done! Answered by Dr. Harold Fields: Gastritis: It will respond to medication which your gastroenterologist.. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which the immune system mistakenly destroys a special type of cell (parietal cells) in the stomach. Parietal cells make stomach acid (gastric acid) and a substance our body needs to help absorb vitamin B 12 (called intrinsic factor) Notes: Corpus = gastric body.; Incisura = angular incisure, incisura angularis (Latin) - notched transition point on lesser curvature of the stomach between pylorus and body.; Severity. The Sydney group suggests grading severity with the following language: Mild. Moderate. Marked. These terms are applied to the parameters described in a biopsy

ease, a characteristic type of gastritis was found in group.10 The significance of the histological findings cannot antral biopsy specimens of 36 patients (48%) and in therefore be fully determined. body biopsy specimens of 18 patients (24%). It was A better definition of gastric histology in patients wit Requires a biopsy from the body for diagnosis Atrophic gastritis largely restricted to the gastric body Antrum usually normal but may show focal inflammation and atrophy During active phase, there is a lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltrat A biopsy will help the doctor to diagnose the cause of a person's symptoms and confirm whether or not they have atrophic gastritis. Risk factors A person is most at risk of atrophic gastritis if. Histologic examination of biopsy specimens confirmed the presence of both acute and chronic gastritis, as evidenced by the presence of cells associated with acute inflammation (neutrophils) and chronic inflammation (plasma cells and lymphocytes) (Figure 2). The key to this patient's diagnosis, however, lay in the presence of an unexpected.

Gastritis - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clini

  1. However, strictly speaking, gastritis is a formal medical term for a diagnosis made by a pathologist when evidence of inflammation and damage to the stomach lining is seen in a biopsy specimen taken during an upper endoscopy
  2. ation of biopsy samples is lymphocytic plasmacytic (LP) gastritis (Figure 23-14). Some patients will also have concurrent evidence of LP inflammation in the small intestine, pancreas, and/or liver
  3. Gastritis and gastropathy may be chronic, developing slowly and lasting a long time, or acute, developing suddenly and lasting a short time. Some forms are erosive, meaning that they wear away the stomach lining and cause shallow breaks, called erosions, and ulcers. Other forms are nonerosive
  4. Although the term gastritis is often used to describe endoscopic or radiologic characteristics of abnormal-appearing gastric mucosa, a diagnosis of gastritis requires histopathologic evidence of inflammation. This topic will review the etiology, classification, and diagnosis of gastritis. Specific causes of acute and chronic gastritis and.
  5. B12.
  6. Autoimmune gastritis is a microscopic disease because patients present with no or vague symptoms, and clinicians rarely find endoscopic changes. Autoimmune gastritis only becomes a clinical disease when pathologists diagnose it in gastric biopsies performed for a variety of clinical indications

A gastric tissue biopsy and culture can help detect: Cancer; Infections, most commonly Helicobacter pylori, the bacteria that can cause stomach ulcers ; Normal Results. A gastric tissue biopsy is normal if it does not show cancer, other damage to the lining of the stomach, or signs of organisms that cause infection Gastric tissue biopsy and culture. Gastric tissue biopsy is the removal of stomach tissue for examination. A culture is a laboratory test that examines the tissue sample for bacteria and other organisms that can cause disease. A flexible fiberoptic tube is passed through the mouth and down the esophagus until it enters the stomach Iacopini F, Consolazio A, Bosco D, et al. Oxidative damage of the gastric mucosa in Helicobacter pylori positive chronic atrophic and nonatrophic gastritis, before and after eradication. final diagnosis a. gastric biopsy:-- oxyntic mucosa with mild chronic inactive gastritis.-- negative for h. pylori organisms (ihc stain). b. random colon biopsy:-- colonic mucosa without histologic abnormality.-- negative for features of acute, chronic, and microscopic colitis. note a & b: microscopic slides were examined

4 biopsy samples each from the proximal and distal esoph-agus, even if the esophageal mucosa appears normal. Biopsy samples should also be taken of the gastric antrum and duodenum when there is a suspicion of eosinophilic gastroenteritis.20 Biopsy samples should not be placed in Bouin's preservative, which can lead to a reduced abilit Has been termed Isolated Granulomatous Gastritis (IGG) Primarily reported in adults. Endoscopic appearance ranges from non-specific minor changes to thickened mucosal folds with outlet obstruction. Robert V Rouse MD rouse@stanford.edu. Department of Pathology. Stanford University School of Medicine CMV gastritis is essentially diagnosed by gastroscopy and biopsy because viral load and immunoglobulin (Ig) M level could be misleading. [ 2 ] Acute gastritis has been noted in patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors for cancer immunotherapy, such as pembrolizumab Hi, I got an endoscopy last month, can anyone please help me understand these results? Thank you. Stomach, antrum, biopsy: - Gastric antral type mucosa with chronic inactive gastritis - No Helicobacter microorganisms identified - No evidence of intestinal metaplasi Gastritis is a redness and swelling (inflammation) of the stomach lining. It can be caused by drinking too much alcohol, eating spicy foods, or smoking. Some diseases and other health issues can also cause gastritis

mild gastritis -- WHY BIOPSY? Abdominal Disorders

Gastritis and gastropathy may be chronic, developing slowly and lasting a long time, or acute, developing suddenly and lasting a short time. Some forms are erosive, meaning that they wear away the stomach lining and cause shallow breaks, called erosions, and ulcers. Other forms are nonerosive In a previous comparative study of gastric biopsy specimens from 984 patients with chronic gastritis (without ulcers or carcinoma), we found intestinal metaplasia in 32% of the Swedish patients and in 59% of the Japanese patients. 28 In a subsequent analysis of 691 consecutive gastric biopsy specimens from Mexican patients, intestinal. Tissue sampling from the gastric antrum, incisura, and corpus is essential to establish the topography of gastritis and to identify atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, which usually is patchy. It is recommended that biopsy samples of the gastric body and those from the antrum and incisura be submitted in separate containers for pathologic. Gastric adenocarcinoma carries a poor prognosis, in part due to the late stage of diagnosis. Risk factors include Helicobacter pylori infection, family history of gastric cancer—in particular, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and pernicious anaemia. The stages in the progression to cancer include chronic gastritis, gastric atrophy (GA), gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) and dysplasia. The.

Gastritis biopsies - Gastroenterology - MedHel

The diagnosis of Autoimmune Gastritis is made by combined findings of anemia, serological (blood) studies, endoscopic findings, and gastric biopsy diagnosis. The anemia (low hemoglobin) may be iron-deficiency type (microcytic with low MCV) or vitamin B12 deficiency type (macrocytic with high MCV) Abnormal serological findings include, increased. Gastric epithelial dysplasia does not cause any signs or symptoms. Diagnosis. Gastric epithelial dysplasia is often found during stomach tests, such as an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, done for other health reasons. Tests used to diagnose gastric epithelial dysplasia may include: upper gastrointestinal endoscopy; endoscopic biopsy Gastritis is a condition that inflames the stomach lining (the mucosa), causing belly pain, indigestion (dyspepsia), bloating and nausea. It can lead to other problems. Gastritis can come on suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic). Medications and dietary changes can reduce stomach acid and ease gastritis symptoms. Appointments 216.444.7000

Pathology Outlines - Lymphocytic gastritis

When confronted with a biopsy showing 'greater than normal' numbers of eosinophils in the gastric mucosa, a pathologist has limited available resources that can help decide whether or how to. If no lesion is detected, conduct biopsy for staging of gastritis (if not previously done) and perform endoscopic surveillance within 6 months for high-grade dysplasia or 12 months for low-grade dysplasia. In patients with IM at a single location and a family history of gastric cancer;. Background: The use of endoscopes for visualization of gastric mucosa has improved over times and in taking biopsy for histology. The study sets out to determine the histopathological pattern of gastritis in dyspeptic patients and correlate the histological detection of H. pylori with that of urease breath test (UBT). Method: Prospective study of 118 consecutive patients with chronic dyspepsia.

Gastritis: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatmen

Precancer: The antrum is that portion of the lower stomach above the pylorus. Having chronic inflammation with extensive intestinal metaplasia is the precursor for developing gastric cancer.Left alone one would find an eventual gastric ulcer and invasive cancer. Partial gastrectomy would probably be indicated at this time Gastritis is diagnosed based on the patient's symptoms and history of a previous diagnosis and treatment of gastritis, alcohol consumption, and use of NSAIDs. A definitive diagnosis of gastritis is made by identifying the underlying cause of the gastric mucosal inflammation and/or by tissue (gastric) biopsy

Reactive gastropathy, chemical gastropathy also called gastritis of « C type » or chemical gastritis is an abnormality in the stomach caused by chemicals, e.g. bile, alcohol, and characteristically has minimal inflammation The practical role of gastric biopsy tric biopsies from the inflammed mucosa of the in the management of gastritis is controversial. antrum were taken for histological evidence of Overall, endoscopic examinations are gastritis. 2-dimentional and performed in-situ whereas RESULTS histological examination are pinpoint and per- formed on in-vitro. on a small biopsy specimen. Gastric IM is thought to be a breakpoint in the pro-cess towards carcinogenesis. Several attempts have been made at inducing regression of gastric IM by treating H pylori infection. A meta-analysis of 2658 patients with atrophic gastritis and gastric IM found that atrophic gas A biopsy demonstrating chronic active gastritis — a background of chronic inflammation, with neutrophils present between the glandular epithelium. Fig. 2. Curved Helicobacter pylori bacilli adjacent to the gastric epithelium on a methylene blue stain Gastric adenomas. Gastric biopsy revealing high-grade dysplasia. Definite. Chronic atrophic gastritis. Gastric metaplasia or biopsy. Helicobacter pylori infection

Gastritis and Gastroscopic Biopsy List of authors. Sydney Selesnick, M.D.. Gastric Biopsy. Isolate the stomach from the remainder of the abdominal cavity using moist laparotomy sponges. Place two stay sutures (full thickness to ensure you engage the submucosa) in the less vascular portion of the stomach (oriented vertically between the greater and lesser curvature); plan to make your incision between these two sutures gastric biopsies for the evaluation of some specific aspects of gastritis.7-10 The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of different patterns of gastric biopsy sampling to test our hypothesis that there are ideal num-bers and combinations of biopsy specimens from antrum, corpus, and cardia that afford a maximal diag

Gastritis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

  1. intestinal metaplasia; oesophagogastric junction; oesophagitis; gastritis; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; Helicobacter pylori; Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is commonly detected in random biopsy specimens taken immediately distal to the normally located squamocolumnar junction.1-6 IM at the oesophagogastric junction is a topic of great interest, because it may aetiopathogenetically be linked.
  2. Most gastric polyps are diagnosed during an upper endoscopy. To diagnose the type of polyp, your healthcare provider will do a biopsy. In a biopsy, you will have a sample of the gastric polyp and nearby tissue taken out. This happens during an endoscopy. A specialist then looks at the sample under a microscope
  3. The search for Helicobacter pylori (HP), the causative organism for most cases of non-autoimmune chronic gastritis, is an integral part of gastric biopsy specimen interpretation. Although organisms with characteristic morphologic features of HP can be observed on H&E stain in most gastric biopsy specimens, 1-3 especially when large numbers of organisms are present, 4 a number of special.
  4. Stomach, Biopsy: - Body-type gastric mucosa with moderate chronic active inflammation and abundant HELICOBACTER-LIKE ORGANISMS. - NEGATIVE for intestinal metaplasia. - NEGATIVE for dysplasia and NEGATIVE for malignancy. COMMENT: There are approximately 45 lymphocytes/100 enterocytes. Increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) is a nonspecific.
  5. Keywords:Ribopatterns - Helicobacterpylori- Colonization sites - Cytotoxins -Adhesion -Gastritis Thirty-six isolates ofH. pylori from up to three gastric biopsy sites (antrum, corpus and fundus) from 13 patients in Italy with different degrees of histological gastritis were investigated

A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist.The process involves extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist; it may also be analyzed chemically.When an entire lump or suspicious area is. Chronic, Erosive Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach characterized by multiple lesions in the mucous lining causing ulcer-like symptoms. These symptoms may include a burning and heavy feeling in the pit of the stomach, mild nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and weakness Chronic gastritis in the mucosal biopsy specimens was noted, and the intensity of the gastritis, if present, was semiquantitatively graded as mild, moderate, or severe. 12 Chronic gastritis graded as mild generally ranged from only a few mononuclear cells to small groups in the lamina propria and was best seen at relatively high microscopic. Discussion . The updated Sydney system recommends obtaining biopsy specimens from the antrum, corpus and incisura angularis for the optimal assessment of gastritis and H. pylori status. [] There.

Globally, gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality and the leading cause of infection-associated cancers. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is an intermediate precancerous gastric lesion in the gastric cancer cascade of chronic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma [ 1 ] Stomach. Dyspepsia and gastritis. Organic disease is an uncommon cause of dyspepsia symptoms as peptic ulcers are decreasing as Helicobacter pylori infection disappears. 15 Only 10-15% of the Australian population are currently infected with H. pylori. 15 Of note, however, is that if endoscopy is undertaken, biopsies for a rapid urease test and/or histology should be performed to look for H. Insertion of gastric or duodenal sound as the cause of abnormal reaction of the patient, or of later complication, without mention of misadventure at the time of the procedure. Maternal care for damage to fetus by biopsy procedures; Maternal care for damage to fetus by hematological investigation;. The association of H. pylori and abnormal gastric biopsy results is a well-established finding.6 For age and gender, we know that gastric cancer is more common in males and elderly.28 However, to our knowledge, there is no study investigating the significance of having precancerous gastric lesions (PCGLs) in relationship to gender and age.

Pathology Outlines - Chronic gastriti

  1. Conclusions Among patients who undergo gastroscopy with biopsy for clinical indications, approximately 1 in 256 with normal mucosa, 1 in 85 with gastritis, 1 in 50 with atrophic gastritis, 1 in 39 with intestinal metaplasia, and 1 in 19 with dysplasia will develop gastric cancer within 20 years. These numbers, along with cost-benefit analyses.
  2. Diagnosing gastritis involves a variety of tests, including: Endoscopy - a thin flexible tube is threaded down the oesophagus into the stomach. The endoscope is fitted with a small camera so the physician can look at the stomach lining. If the gastric mucosa is reddened, this may indicate gastritis. A biopsy is needed for confirmation
  3. In the stomach, gastric amyloidosis may have an endoscopic appearance mimicking gastric neoplasia [2, 3], hematomas, erosions and ulcerations, or a nodular gastritis . The diagnosis of gastrointestinal amyloidosis may be hard to suspect in patients without previously diagnosed inflammatory or plasma cell disease

Gastric tissue biopsy and culture Definition: Gastric tissue biopsy is the removal of stomach tissue for examination. A culture is a laboratory test that examines the tissue sample for bacteria and other organisms that can cause disease Two biopsy samples (one before treatment and another 1 year after treatment) from 12 subjects with gastritis alone and 16 with gastritis and multiple foci of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were selected for IHC cell proliferation (tumor suppressor protein p53, proliferation marker Ki-67, cell cycle regulator cyclin D1), surface inflammatory. Helicobacter Pylori GastritisHelicobacter Pylori Gastritis MC cause of chronic gastritis,MC cause of chronic gastritis, Mechanism - Binding - MHCMechanism - Binding - MHC class II moleculesclass II molecules Cag ACag A proteinprotein increased IL-8increased IL-8 ,TNF,TNF superficial gastritissuperficial gastritis Upto 80% patients -Upto.

Gastritis can be caused by irritation due to excessive alcohol use, chronic vomiting, stress, The doctor will check for inflammation and may perform a biopsy,. Acute gastritis is often temporary and can result in stomach pain after drinking alcohol—however, the pain fades off with time. Other symptoms of acute alcoholic gastritis include loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms are quite similar to that of pancreatitis, which is the long term effects of alcohol on the pancreas Interpretation of gastric. biopsy Speaker: Dr. Shefali Gupta Guide: Col. Satyanarayana HEADS INTRODUCTION NORMAL HISTOLOGY BIOPSY SITES ENDOSCOPIC IMAGES CLASSIFICATION & GRADING OF GASTRITIS ROLE OF H. pylori OVERVIEW OF TYPES OF GASTRITIS OTHER PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS THE STOMACH Unequal dilatation of the foregut 11 th thoracic vertebra to right of 1st lumbar vertebra 4 parts Cardia. The best sites for biopsy-based tests to evaluate H. pylori infection in gastritis with atrophy are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the site and sensitivity of biopsy-based tests in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. One hundred and sixty-four (164) uninvestigated dyspepsia patients were enrolled. Biopsy-based tests (i.e., culture, histology Giemsa stain and rapid urease.

The following disorders may have symptoms similar to Chronic, Erosive Gastritis. Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis: Crohn's Disease, also known as ileitis, regional enteritis, or granulomatous colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease characterized by severe, often granulomatous, chronic inflammation of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract final diagnosis a. gastric biopsy: -- oxyntic mucosa with mild chronic inactive gastritis. -- negative for h. pylori organisms (ihc stain). b. random colon biopsy: -- colonic mucosa without histologic read mor

For the 17 patients with a concurrent antral biopsy, active inflammation was seen in four biopsies. In this subset of four patients, the antral active inflammation was equivalent to or greater than that in the matched body biopsy. Gastric body chronic inflammation was identified in specimens from all 22 patients Gastric cancer consists of two pathological variants, intestinal and diffuse. The intestinal-type is the end-result of an inflammatory process that progresses from chronic gastritis to atrophic gastritis and finally to intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. This type is more common among elderly men, unlike the diffuse type, which i Gastritis is a redness and swelling (inflammation) of the stomach lining. It can be caused by drinking too much alcohol, eating spicy foods, or smoking. Some diseases and other health issues can also cause gastritis. Symptoms may include stomach pain, belching, nausea, vomiting, abdominal bleeding, feeling full, and blood in vomit or stool

Gastritis is inflammation and irritation of the stomach. Learn about gastritis symptoms, when to see a doctor for stomach pain from gastritis, causes and risk factors for gastritis like H. pylori, complications, and treatments, including the best type of gastritis diet to reduce symptoms. A biopsy can show if H. pylori or other. gastric hyperplastic polyps do have clinical significance despite the similarities in nomenclature. Gastric hyper-plastic polyps are strongly associated with inflammatory disorders such as chronic gastritis, H pylori gastritis, per - nicious anemia, and reactive or chemical gastritis.11,25 As such, it is worthwhile to biopsy the background fla Gastritis is a common condition in which the stomach lining becomes inflamed. There are many potential causes of gastritis, from infections, physical damage to the stomach lining, or a response. 43239 with biopsy, single or multiple 43241 with transendoscopic tube or catheter placement 43243 with injection sclerosis of esophageal and/or gastric varices 43244 with band ligation of esophageal and/or gastric varices 43245 with dilation of gastric outlet for obstruction, any method 43246 with directed placement of percutaneous gastrostomy tub As biopsy findings revealed only changes associated with gastritis and the patient tested positive for Helicobacter pylori, he underwent a second endoscopic examination and repeat biopsy after the eradication. Results of the repeat biopsy were similar to those of the first biopsy

The diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma relies on clinical symptoms, endoscopic features and pathohistological examination of gastric biopsy tissue, as well as noninvasive tests for H. pylori infection, such as the 13 C-urea breath test and the monoclonal stool antigen test. The clinical presentation of patients with gastric MALT lymphoma is nonspecific Gastritis Gastric cancer Optical biopsy Reflectance Autofluorescence Helicobacter pylori Introduction Globally, gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death [1]. In patients with chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa precancerous lesions may occur in one quarter of cases [2]

[Full text] Autoimmune atrophic gastritis: current

Autoimmune gastritis (AIG), is a non-self-limiting, chronic inflammatory disorder affecting the oxyntic (acid-secreting gastric compartment) mucosa, leading to progressive mucosal atrophy 1,2,3,4. Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining. The lining of the stomach often looks red, irritated and swollen, and it may have raw areas that can bleed. Infection with Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) bacteria — In addition to causing gastritis, H. pylori infections have been linked to the development peptic ulcer disease, open sores.

Can endoscopic atrophy predict histological atrophyGastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease Caused by HelicobacterThe staging of gastritis with the OLGA system by usingPathology Outlines - Autoimmune gastritisHelicobacter pylori, Gastric Biopsy, Giemsa Stain | Flickr

Diagnosis of gastritis and PUD involves recognizing the common signs and symptoms and determining that H pylori infection is present; this can be determined with a serologic test, a C13 radiolabeled urea breath test, by endoscopy with tissue biopsy, or stool EIA antigen test. Endoscopy allows direct visualization of gastritis, ulcers, and. Hi! Welcome to HCM! EGD is Esophagogastroduodenoscopy in this lining of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum is examined. The upper endoscopy report indicates grade 2 esophagitis and gastritis. Acid reflux means that some acid leaks up (refluxes) into the gullet (oesophagus). Oesophagitis means inflammation of the lining of the oesophagus. Most cases of oesophagitis are due to reflux of. Helicobacter Pylori Gastritis • Typical histopathology is characterized by: - Chronic active antral gastritis, with or without - Chronic active superficial gastritis in the corpus • Lymphoplasmacytic inflammation in the lamina propria • Neutrophils in the lamina propria and gastric pits • Lymphoid aggregates and follicles - Characteristic bacilli, primarily in the foveolar mucu Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of gastric biopsy-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection and the identification of clarithromycin-resistant strains in children. Methods: A gastric biopsy-based qPCR for the detection of H pylori infection and the identification of clarithromycin-resistant. parietal cell area of the gastric mucosa and may be found within parietal cells (18,19). Diagnosis H. pylori infection may be diagnosed by harvest-ing gastric biopsy specimens during endoscopy, by culturing and isolating the bacterium under mi-croaerobic conditions (90% N 2, 5% O 2, and 5% CO 2), and by characterizing the enzymes (urease