Down syndrome SlideShare

Down syndrome - SlideShar

Down syndrome 1. What is Down Syndrome • DS is a naturally occurring chromosomal arrangement that has always been a part of the human condition, being universally present across racial, gender or socioeconomic lines, and affecting approximately 1 in 800 live births, although there is considerable variation worldwide DOWNS SYNDROME (PPT) 1. Down SyndromeMR. VIVEK MANI 2. What is Down Syndrome? • Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes a lifelong Intellectual Disability, developmental delays and other problems • Down syndrome varies in severity, so developmental problems range from moderate to serious • Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of learning disabilities in children. Down syndrome 1. Down Syndrome<br />By: Natalie Brennan<br /> 2. What is Down syndrome?<br />Down syndrome is a genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. <br />This disorder causes mental retardation and other problems. <br />Down syndrome ranges in severity, so developmental problems may range from mild to serious.<br />

Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome. Chromosomes are small packages of genes in the body. They determine how a baby's body forms during pregnancy and how the baby's body functions as it grows in the womb and after birth. Typically, a baby is born with 46 chromosomes. Babies with Down syndrome have an. 15. Treatment & Therapies People with Down syndrome are at increased risk for certain medical problems. Some of the problems commonly faced by people with Down syndrome include heart defects, thyroid, muscle, joint, vision and hearing problems. Other conditions seen less frequently in Down syndrome include leukemia, and seizures. 16 Down Syndrome. 1. Living with<br />Down Syndromeby Teri White-Griffin<br />. 2. Down Syndrome is also calledTrisomy 21<br />Trisomy21 is a congenital condition that makes an extra copy of the 21st chromosome. <br />This extra chromosomecauses mental and physical developmental delays.<br />. 3

Upcoming SlideShare. Loading in But if a person has a partial or full copy of chromosome 21, the situation is called Down syndrome. It results in intellectual disability, reading impairment, developmental delay, and other medical abnormalities. There is no specific treatment for Down syndrome. Thus, early detection and screening of this. Down Syndrome Treatment - Down Syndrome is a chromosomal condition which occurs when an individual has a full or extra partial copy of chromosome 21. It is a genetic disorder that affects the cognitive ability and physical growth, cause mild to moderate developmental issues and present a higher risk of some health problems Disease Pathophysiology Down Syndrome is a genetically occurred disordered due the presence of third copy of chromosome. It is also known as trisomy 21. On an average the IQ of a patient suffering with Down Syndrome is 50. Though Down syndrome can't be prevented, it can be detected before a child is born

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder in which there is an extra full or partial chromosome 21. For most people with Down syndrome, this anomaly causes a host of distinctive physical characteristics as well as potential health and medical problems. The exception are those who have the relatively rare form of Down syndrome called mosaic Down. Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome 21. This extra chromosome changes how a baby's body and brain develop. To learn what it's like to live with this condition or how families are affected, read these real stories from people living with Down syndrome The teeth of people with Down syndrome, both baby teeth and permanent teeth, may come in late compared to children without Down syndrome. On average, babies with Down syndrome get their first teeth at 12 to 14 months, but it may be as late as 24 months of age. Babies without Down syndrome typically get their first teeth between 6-12 months


This presentation has been created by Down syndrome UK, registered charity number 1184564. We are making it available for general use but would ask that if a school has a member(s) who has/have Down syndrome, or there are close relatives of a young person with Down syndrome, that you seek permission of the parents/carers first Down syndrome accounts for about one-third of all moderate and severe mental handicaps in school-aged children. The prevalence of Down syndrome worldwide has increased because of increases in lifespan in the last few decades. The characteristic morphologic features will be obvious in children older than 1 year Down syndrome was first described by an English physician John Langdon Down in 1866, but its association with chromosome 21 was established almost 100 years later by Dr. Jerome Lejeune in Paris. It is the presence of all or part of the third copy of chromosome 21 which causes Down syndrome, the most common chromosomal abnormality occurring in humans.[1 There is no single, standard treatment for Down syndrome. Treatments are based on each individual's physical and intellectual needs as well as his or her personal strengths and limitations. 1 People with Down syndrome can receive proper care while living at home and in the community. A child with Down syndrome likely will receive care from a team of health professionals, including, but not. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder and the most common autosomal chromosome abnormality in humans, where extra genetic material from chromosome 21 is transferred to a newly formed embryo. These extra genes and DNA cause changes in the development of the embryo and fetus resulting in physical and mental abnormalities

Down syndrome occurs in around 1 in every 700 pregnancies. It is determined by many factors, but research suggests that there is a higher chance if the mother is older than 35 years of age 4 Pablo Pineda—DipT BA. Pablo Pineda is an actor and educator most well-known for being the first European with Down Syndrome to obtain a university degree, having completed both a Diploma in Teaching and a BA in Educational Psychology. In 2009, he won the Silver Shell Award at the San Sebastián International Film Festival for his role in Yo.

Down syndrome is a genetic condition that occurs as a result of an extra chromosome (chromosome 21). Usually, cells contain 46 chromosomes. 23 are inherited from the mother and 23 from the father. People with Down syndrome, may contain 47 chromosomes as there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. The additional genetic material causes physical and. Down syndrome is an anomaly of chromosome 21 that can cause intellectual disability, microcephaly, short stature, and characteristic facies. Diagnosis is suggested by physical anomalies and abnormal development and confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. Management depends on specific manifestations and anomalies

teaching down syndrome. Deepa. https://www.twominuteparenting.com. While it's true that parenting can't be learned in just two minutes, two minutes can still go a long way in parenting. An opinionated blogger, advocate for Down syndrome, writer, teacher and mother of two ( one with special needs and the other a math enthusiast), Deepa is. Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, is the most common chromosomal anomaly and is characterized by intellectual disability and a typical facies. People with Down syndrome can have abnormalities of multiple organ systems. Cardiac and respiratory system involvement is the most common cause of morbidity and

Kathleen Fergus, MS, LCGC, is a board-certified genetic counselor who has worked extensively with families affected by Down syndrome. Down syndrome (trisomy 21) can be diagnosed almost as soon as a baby is born, based on distinctive physical characteristics that prompt immediate testing. Down. Vee P Prasher (UK) and Neha Bansal (UK) Down's syndrome is the commonest genetic cause of intellectual disabilities (Vicari et al, 2013). Although there is increased prevalence of psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disabilities as a whole (Mantry et al, 2008; Buckles et al, 2013), certain psychiatric illnesses are more common amongst people with Down's syndrome (Dykens et al.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether whole-body vibration training could improve standing balance and muscle strength in children with Down syndrome. Design: This study was a randomized controlled trial studying 30 children (8-10 yrs old) with Down syndrome. They were assigned randomly using sealed envelopes, with 15 children allocated to the control group (9 boys, 6. Down syndrome features, diagnosis, management strategie Down Syndrome 1. Living with<br />Down Syndromeby Teri White-Griffin<br /> 2. Down Syndrome is also calledTrisomy 21<br />Trisomy21 is a congenital condition that makes an extra copy of the 21st chromosome. <br />This extra chromosomecauses mental and physical developmental delays.<br /> 3 Down Syndrome Dr.K.V.Giridhar Associate Prof. of Pediatrics GMC. Ananthapuramu, A.P., India. 4/28/2014 1 O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários

prenatal diagnosis

Down Syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality and one of the most common genetic conditions. It occurs in approximately one in every 700 to one 1,000 live births. Down syndrome accounts for approximately 5 percent to 6 percent of intellectual disabilities. Most students with Down syndrome fall into the mild to moderate range of cognitive impairment Solo 6 Literacy Suite is an amazing assistive technology for individuals suffering from down syndrome, specially students. Solo 6 Literacy Suite allows its users to read text out loud, organize graphic in various ways and even help its users write text out loud. Moreover, it also includes word prediction which means that users don't even have to complete writing and the software guesses the. The thickness of the brain's cerebral cortex could be a key to unlocking answers about intellectual development in youth with Down Syndrome. It could also provide new insights to why individuals with this genetic neurodevelopmental disorder are highly susceptible to early onset Alzheimer's Disease later in life Down syndrome (Median) Range with Down syndrome Typically Developing (Median) Rolls to prone 7 months 5-9 months 7 months Sits unsupported 10 months 8-11 months 7 months Crawls 14 months 9-19 months 8 months Pulls to Stand 15 months 8-26 months 8 months Stands Alone 18 months 12-38 months 11 months Walks Alone 23 months 13-48 months 12 month Saved from slideshare.net. Down Syndrome. Living withDown Syndromeby Teri White-Griffin. Saved by Jacquie Weezie Wich. 3. Signs Of Down Syndrome Down Syndrome Symptoms Down Syndrome People World Downs Syndrome Day Down Syndrome Features Down Sydrome Medical Dictionary Congenital Heart Defect Impulsive Behavior

Downs syndrome - SlideShar

  1. Yes and no. Down syndrome is caused by an extra copy of a specific chromosome. In most cases, this is the result of something going wrong with the sperm or the egg prior to conception. However, in some cases, Down syndrome is genetic. Translocation trisomy 21, an inheritable condition, makes up about 4% of Down syndrome cases. 6
  2. Down syndrome, also called trisomy 21, is the most common autosomal chromosomal irregularity, occurring in approximately 1:700 live births. The risk of a trisomy 21 pregnancy increases with materna..
  3. Results: Prevalence of ARSA in Down-syndrome fetuses was 23.6% (95% CI, 19.4-27.9%), whereas in euploid fetuses it was 1.02% (95% CI, 0.86-1.10%). Ultrasound evaluation of the RSA course and origin in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy was feasible in 85% and 98% of cases (first and second trimester, respectively) and it was directly.

Down syndrome Characteristics, Diagnosis - SlideShar

Some 300,000 people in the United States have Down syndrome, caused by a third, extra copy of chromosome 21. In addition to being linked to congenital heart disease, hearing deficits and leukemia, Down syndrome is the top cause of mental retardation in this country and often leads to early-onset Alzheimer's disease Down syndrome has effects on the developing eye which can impact the proper development of vision. Eye disease is reported in over half of patients with Down Syndrome, from less severe problems such as tear duct abnormalities to vision threatening diagnoses such as early age cataracts. Particular attention should be given to vision in people.

Down Syndrome: Born with Extra

Early Support Information for parents, Down Syndrome Winders, P. 1997. Gross Motor Skills in Children with Down Syndrome Concerns and complaints We aim to provide you with a high quality service at all times. However, if you have any concerns, complaints or comments about your experience of our service then please tell Down syndrome (trisomy 21) isn't a disease or condition that can be managed or cured with medication or surgery. The goal of treatment, therefore, is not to address the disorder itself, but rather the variety of health issues, medical conditions, and physical, developmental, and intellectual challenges that people with Down syndrome may experience throughout their lives Assistive Technology. As defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), assistive technology is 'any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially off the. We deliver polished, Thesis Statement Examples For Down Syndrome flawless grammar and composition to guarantee the academic success of ESL and American students. When you submit our work, you can be confident that it is ready to hand in to your teacher or professor. Better grades, less hassle! 97% success rate. +1 (877) 638-3233 Down syndrome is a condition in which a person is born with an extra copy of chromosome 21. People with Down syndrome can have physical problems, as well as intellectual disabilities. Every person born with Down syndrome is different. People with the syndrome may also have other health problems. They may be born with heart disease

Down syndrome detection using modified adaboost algorith

  1. Down syndrome is the most common form of intellectual disability in the world. It occurs in approximately 1 out of every 1000 babies born alive, and it is caused by a genetic abnormality that affects something called a chromosome. Chromosomes are large structures found in cells that house thousands of genes
  2. Burning feet syndrome, also known as Grierson-Gopalan syndrome, is a set of symptoms in which the feet often become uncomfortably hot and painful. The burning sensation may become more intense at night, with some relief occurring during the day. Symptoms may range from mild to severe. The heat and pain can be limited to the soles of the feet.
  3. down syndrome. Education. bio, bio30 _abc cc embed * Powtoon is not liable for any 3rd party content used. It is the responsibility of each user to comply with 3rd party copyright laws..
  4. The hallmark sign of Brown syndrome is a decreased ability to look upward and inward with the affected eye (s). In some situations the eyes turn outward ( exotropia) when looking up. Occasionally, the affected eye can get stuck after looking up or down for long periods of time. When the eye becomes unstuck, a click is often heard and may.
  5. Those with speech problems are able to speak through a portable voice synthesizer (Behrmann, 1998). Another specially useful software for reading is Compu Thera designed for the special needs [of] kids with autism, Down syndrome, ADHD and those who are visual learners who have trouble learning just by observation (Marsh, n.d.)
  6. DiGeorge syndrome, more accurately known by a broader term — 22q11.2 deletion syndrome — is a disorder caused when a small part of chromosome 22 is missing. This deletion results in the poor development of several body systems. The term 22q11.2 deletion syndrome covers terms once thought to be separate conditions, including DiGeorge.
  7. The most common trisomy in a newborn is trisomy 21 (three copies of chromosome 21, which is the smallest human chromosome). It is possible for an embryo to have trisomy of any chromosome, however, an extra larger chromosome is more likely to end in miscarriage or stillbirth. Trisomy 21 causes about 95% of the cases of Down syndrome
Down&#39;s syndrome, trisomy 21

PPT - DOWN SYNDROME PowerPoint presentation free to view

If the condition is diagnosed early, nonsurgical methods may help improve carpal tunnel syndrome, including: Wrist splinting. A splint that holds your wrist still while you sleep can help relieve nighttime symptoms of tingling and numbness. Even though you only wear the splint at night, it can also help prevent daytime symptoms Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is a genetic disorder commonly characterized by overgrowth. The severity of this disorder varies widely in children and is usually recognized at birth, when a child is born with several features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. However, few children have all the associated characteristics

Down Syndrome India PDF PPT Case Reports Symptoms

  1. As I mentioned in my recent post on homeschooling a child with Down syndrome, there were many books that helped me as I homeschooled my son with Down syndrome.Not all of them were school books. There's a certain amount of acceptance that parents of kids with disabilities must gain, and it takes a while to get there
  2. Piriformis syndrome is uncommon; health care professionals diagnose less than 200,000 people with this condition per year in the U.S. This syndrome usually starts with single-leg pain, tingling, or numbness in the back and/or buttock area that can extend down the back of the leg (thigh) following the sciatic nerve and cause sciatic nerve pain.Nerve compression by spasm or contracture of the.
  3. Down syndrome is the most common autosomal abnormality. The frequency is about 1 case in 800 live births. Each year, approximately 6000 children are born with Down syndrome. Down syndrome accounts for about one third of all moderate and severe mental handicaps in school-aged children
  4. Hunter syndrome (MPS II) affects a calculated estimate of approximately 1 in 162,000 live births. Since Hunter syndrome is an inherited disorder (X-linked recessive) that primarily affects males, it is passed down from one generation to the next in a specific way
  5. al pain. [radiologykey.com] Nearly all umbilical hernia repairs can be performed as outpatient surgical procedures. [basicmedicalkey.com].

5,000+ Down Syndrome PPTs View free & download PowerShow

Brugada syndrome is a condition that causes a disruption of the heart's normal rhythm. Specifically, this disorder can lead to irregular heartbeats in the heart's lower chambers (ventricles), which is an abnormality called ventricular arrhythmia. If untreated, the irregular heartbeats can cause fainting (syncope), seizures, difficulty breathing. 21. 25% of patients have Down syndrome and 2% of children with Down syndrome have duodenal atresia. [clinicaladvisor.com] She was subsequently diagnosed as having ileal atresia; the initially thought meconium stained liquor was the result of in-utero bilious vomiting , secondary to the intestinal [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov down syndrome for pedo doctors, master and doctorat Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition that is associated with intellectual disability, a characteristic facial appearance, and weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy. All affected individuals experience cognitive delays, but the intellectual disability is usually mild to moderate. People with Down syndrome often have a characteristic facial. Down syndrome, a common genetic disorder, ranges in severity and is usually associated with medical and physical problems. For example, people with this developmental disability may have cardiac disorders, infectious diseases, hypotonia, and hearing loss. Additionally, mos

Down Syndrome: Signs, Symptoms, and Characteristic

Real Stories: Living with Down Syndrome CD

Goodpasture syndrome is a group of acute illnesses that affects the lungs and kidneys. It involves an autoimmune disorder. Normally, the immune system makes antibodies to fight off germs. But with Goodpasture syndrome, the immune system mistakenly makes antibodies that attack the lungs and kidneys. Epidemiology, Patterns of Care, and Mortality for Patients Wi th Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Intensive Care Units in 50 Countries. JAMA. 2016 Feb 23;315(8):788-800. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0291

Dental Issues & Down Syndrome - NDS

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic disorder that causes distinctive facial features, growth delays, limb malformations, behavioral problems, and a variety of other symptoms. The condition can range from mild to severe and affect multiple parts of the body. It was named after Dutch pediatrician Cornelia de Lange, who first described the condition in two children in 1933 Klinefelter syndrome is a condition that's present from birth (congenital). Because it's a part of a person's genetic code, this condition cannot be cured or completely gotten rid of. However, the symptoms of Klinefelter syndrome can be managed over time to cut down on their impact on a person's life A simple animation explaining what Turner Syndrome is, how it is caused, the symptoms, and how it is diagnosed and treated. We hope this video will be useful.. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a rare disorder that greatly increases the risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly in children and young adults.The cancers most often associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome include breast cancer, a form of bone cancer called osteosarcoma, and cancers of soft tissues (such as muscle) called soft tissue sarcomas. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of. A syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features. Any sickness or illness cannot be called a syndrome. A syndrome is a special case. This word is given to a set of symptoms that may occur altogether at once. The word syndrome comes from the Greek meaning run together. A syndrome cannot be traced down to a.

Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) Nursing Care Planning and

50 Syndrome Poems ranked in order of popularity and relevancy. At PoemSearcher.com find thousands of poems categorized into thousands of categories Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, is the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition, affecting approximately one in every 733 babies each year. [waisman.wisc.edu] [slideshare.net] Maternal age and risk for trisomy 21 assessed by the origin of chromosome nondisjunction:.

Down Syndrome - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshel

  1. Compartment syndrome is a painful condition, with muscle pressure reaching dangerous levels. Acute compartment syndrome is a medical emergency, usually caused by trauma, like a car accident or broken bone. Chronic (or exertional) compartment syndrome is caused by intense, repetitive exercise and usually stops with rest or changes in routine
  2. Down syndrome is the world's most common genetic disorder. If your Robertsonian translocation fuses another chromosome with chromosome 21, you may be genetically more predisposed to have a baby.
  3. A number of systemic disorders increase patient susceptibility to periodontal disease, which moreover evolves more rapidly and more aggressively. The underlying factors are mainly related to alterations in immune, endocrine and connective tissue status. These alterations are associated with differen

What are common treatments for Down syndrome? NICHD

Guillain-Barré syndrome is an autoimmune disorder that affects the nerves. Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs. In Guillain-Barré syndrome, the immune response damages peripheral nerves, which are the nerves that connect the central nervous system (the brain and spinal. Sudden death syndrome may occur as early as day 7 and may continue until 10-12 weeks in roaster flocks. Mortality usually peaks between days 12 and 28, although it may peak as early as day 9. If growth is restricted early, it may peak only after day 28. Mortality of 0.25%-0.5% per day can occur for 1-3 days Larsen syndrome (LS) is a congenital disorder discovered in 1950 by Larsen and associates when they observed dislocation of the large joints and face anomalies in six of their patients. Patients with Larsen syndrome normally present with a variety of symptoms, including congenital anterior dislocation of the knees, dislocation of the hips and elbows, flattened facial appearance, prominent. Claims of Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome. Douglas Doug Grant is a longtime public school educator whose experience includes 15 years as a middle school counselor and over a decade as a social studies and history teacher. Beyond his career as a teacher, Douglas Grant is an active supporter of causes related to Down syndrome

Down Syndrome Causes, Symptoms, Facts & Preventio

  1. Down Syndrome (DS) is the consequence of trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is the most common genetic form of intellectual disability. Additional copy of chromosome 21 results in elevated expression of many of the genes encoded on this chromosome, leading to variying expression of genes associated with this chromosome
  2. FPnotebook.com is a rapid access, point-of-care medical reference for primary care and emergency clinicians. Started in 1995, this collection now contains 6963 interlinked topic pages divided into a tree of 31 specialty books and 737 chapters
  3. The mild, or attenuated form of MPS I is also known as Scheie syndrome or MPS I S: Children born with this form have normal intelligence and may live to adulthood.; The severe form of MPS I is known as Hurler syndrome or MPS I H: Children affected with the severe form may have mental retardation, short stature, stiff joints, speech and hearing impairment, heart disease, and a shortened lifespan
  4. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a group of defects passed down through families. The disorder involves the skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, urinary and reproductive systems, and bones. It causes an unusual facial appearance and a higher risk for skin cancers and noncancerous tumors
  5. Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare genetic disorder estimated to affect 1-2 individuals per million. It is a serious disease that prevents the body from breaking down fats consumed through the diet, or triglycerides.These triglycerides are carried in the blood by large structures called chylomicrons
  6. Computer vision syndrome. Computer vision syndrome, also referred to as digital eye strain, describes a group of eye- and vision-related problems that result from prolonged computer, tablet, e-reader and cell phone use. Many individuals experience eye discomfort and vision problems when viewing digital screens for extended periods

Down syndrome: Causes, symptoms, and diagnosi

Down syndrome, the most common chromosomal disorder in America, can be complicated by significant deterioration in movement, speech and functioning in some adolescents and young adults. Physicians previously attributed this regression to depression or early-onset Alzheimer's, and it has not responded to treatments. Now, a researcher at the University of Missouri has found that Catatonia, a. Horner syndrome is a rare disease that causes problems with one side of your face. Learn more about the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment for Horner syndrome ABCD syndrome is the acronym for albinism, black lock of hair, cell migration disorder of the neurocytes of the gut, and sensorineural deafness.It has been found to. Brown-Séquard syndrome (also known as Brown-Séquard's hemiplegia, Brown-Séquard's paralysis, hemiparaplegic syndrome, hemiplegia et hemiparaplegia spinalis, or spinal hemiparaplegia) is caused by damage to one half of the spinal cord, i.e. hemisection of the spinal cord resulting in paralysis and loss of proprioception on the same (or ipsilateral) side as the injury or lesion, and loss of. Heart Issues Approximately 40-60% of infants have some type of heart issue These are mostly correctable As the children age, periodic rechecks with the cardiologists are still important Coronary Artery disease is not common in Down syndrome, but risk can increased with obesity and sedentary lifestyle as age. Valvular heart disease: mitral and aortic valve regurgitation, an

Williams Syndrome. Williams syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by unique facial features, delayed development, learning problems, and certain personality traits. People with Williams syndrome tend to have cardiovascular disease, connective tissue changes, and endocrine abnormalities. Growth abnormalities are also common: Williams. Korsakoff syndrome is often — but not always — preceded by an episode of Wernicke encephalopathy, which is an acute brain reaction to severe lack of thiamine. Wernicke encephalopathy is a medical emergency that causes life-threatening brain disruption, confusion, staggering and stumbling, lack of coordination, and abnormal involuntary eye.

Down Syndrome ChildHypospadias Common manifestation of (butLesson 16 MutationsSymposium pediatric cataractGenes, Chromosomes, and Genetic Code: Relevance and