Red blood cell volume vs plasma volume in pregnancy

Blood volume, by measurement of red blood cell and plasma volumes, is reduced and has altered distribution in preeclampsia but is normal in gestational hypertension. Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1998 Jul;179(1):87-93. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9378(98)70255-8 The total volume of red cells increases progressively throughout pregnancy. The published mean increments range from 260 to 495 ml., and the wide range is not wholly explained by variations in dietary iron. The weighted average increment is about 350 ml., which is less than one third of the increase in the plasma volume This increase in blood volume is necessary to supply the fetus and placenta and begins very early in pregnancy. The plasma volume is already increased by 10-15% at 6 weeks of gestation and increases to 30-50% greater than pre-pregnancy volume by term. The red cell volume, in contrast to this, is only increased by 20-30% at term Maternal blood volume increases by 45% to approximately 1 200 to 1 600 ml above non-pregnant values. By the late third trimester the plasma volume increases by more than 50-60%, with a lower increase in red blood cell mass, and therefore plasma osmolality falls by 10 mosmol/kg What Is Good For Red Blood Cells How To Keep Red Blood Cells In Check! - Tip: Red blood cells are often referred to as red cells. Tip: Increasing copper in your diet with foods like shellfish, poultry, and nuts is a good idea. A. Iron, copper, vitamin C, A, B-12, B-6, B. Too few white blood cells can be caused by a viral infection, a bon

There are significant increases in total blood volume, plasma volume, and red blood cell mass during pregnancy. 39,40 In pregnancy, erythropoiesis is increased, provided that the mother has normal nutrition and sufficient iron and vitamin supplements. 41 Placental lactogen may enhance the effect of erythropoietin on erythropoiesis A fall in hemoglobin levels during pregnancy is caused by a greater expansion of plasma volume compared with the increase in red cell volume. This disproportion between the rates of increase for, plasma and erythrocytes have the most distinction during the second trimester. The following are ways red blood cells can be affected and lead to anemia

Maternal blood volume increases during pregnancy, and this involves an increase in plasma volume as well as in red cell and white cell volumes.1 The plasma volume increases by 40-50%, whereas the red cell volume increases by only 15-20%, which causes a physiological anemia of pregnancy (normal hemoglobin 12 g/dL; hematocrit 35).2 Because of this hemodilution, blood viscosity decreases by approximately 20% Plasma volume expansion begins as early as 6 wk of gestation, peaks around 32 wk of gestation, and plateaus until delivery (2, 3). Increased RBC volume is driven by progesterone-mediated increases in erythropoietin, although to a lesser extent than plasma volume (Figure 1) (1 - 3, 5, 6)

As well, plasma volume expansion affects blood-based biomarker concentrations during pregnancy. Hemoglobin concentrations decrease as plasma volume increases to a greater extent than red blood cell mass [ 13, 15, 16 ], and diagnostic cut-offs for anemia vary by trimester [ 17, 18 ] Plasma volume increases to a significant extent early in pregnancy. Maternal blood volume expansion of 40% is not unusual in singleton pregnancy and may be even greater in multiple gestations. This expansion in blood volume is due to an increase in plasma volume of 45% to 55% and an increase in red cell mass of 20% to 30% Red blood cells give blood its red color, and make up about 40% to 45% of total blood volume. These cells are made in the bone marrow and then transported to the bloodstream. Red blood cells increase by about 250 ml (18%) during pregnancy (compared to 40% to 50% for plasma) Introduction to Plasma Volume Expansion in Pregnancy. During pregnancy, maternal plasma volume increases to meet the greater circulatory needs of the placenta and maternal organs (e.g., uterus, breasts, skin, and kidneys), with an average increase of ∼45% (1-5).There are vast differences among women, however, from a minimal change to a doubling in plasma volume (1, 6, 7) During pregnancy the plasma volume increases by 40-50% and the red blood cell volume increases only by 20-30%. These changes occur mostly in the second trimester and prior to 32 weeks gestation. Due to dilution, the net result is a decrease in hematocrit or hemoglobin, which are measures of red blood cell concentration

Measurement of red blood cell volume in pregnancy has been made possible by a new technique with red blood cells labeled with chromium 53, a nonradioactive isotope. 21 Measurement of plasma volume was by Evans' blue dye, with serial sampling over 60 minutes and measurement of dye with use of a two-wavelength method Pregnancy Trimester One: 3.42 to 4.55X106/mm3X106/µl or 3.42 to 4.55X1012/L. Pregnancy Trimester Two: 2.81 to 4.49X106/mm3X106/µl or 2.81 to 4.49X1012/L. Pregnancy Trimester Three: 2.72 to 4.43X106/mm3X106/µl or 2.72 to 4.43X1012/L. If the doctor ordering the CBC suspects there is an underlying problem with red blood cell numbers, additional.

Comparison of total blood volume in normal, preeclamptic

Plasma and red cell volumes during pregnancy - ScienceDirec

Effect of pregnancy on blood volume? increases 30-50% (1,450-1,750mL) What contributes more to hypervolemia, red blood cell volume or plasma volume? Plasma. - increased total blood volume provides reserve vs normal blood loss during childbirth & in the event of pph The total amount of blood in a pregnant woman's body has increased by approximately 25 percent by the time of delivery. The increase is accounted for by the augmented volume of blood plasma (the liquid part of the blood), which is caused by fluid retention, plus an increase in the total number of red blood cells

Pregnancy: laboratory measurement

Blood volume increases during pregnancy because of a rise in plasma volume and, to a lesser extent, a rise in red cell volume. Pre-eclampsia (PE), fetal growth restriction (FGR) and a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate have, in general, been associated with diminished plasma volume expansion compared with healthy normotensive pregnancies Packed red blood cells (RBCs) are prepared from whole blood by removing approximately 250 mL of plasma. One unit of packed RBCs should increase levels of hemoglobin by 1 g per dL (10 g per L) and. Anemia during pregnancy, as noted in this chapter, is even more likely to be labelled as normal since hemodilution takes place during the first and second trimester as plasma volume increases disproportionately to red cell mass Through the progress of normal pregnancy, red cell mass will increase 25% and plasma volume will increase 40% which increases uterine placental blood flow through the decrease in blood hematocrit and viscosity as well as peripheral resistance

Physiological changes in pregnanc

Post pregnancy, plasma volume decrease s as a result of. diuresis, and the blood volume returns to non-pregnant. values. Hemoglobin and hematocrit increase consequently. Plasma volume increases. While red cell mass increases by 15-20% during pregnancy, plasma volume increases by 40%. Hemoglobin levels less than 11 g/dL during the first trimester, less than 10.5 g/dL during the second and third trimesters and less than 10 mg/dL in the postpartum period are considered anemic These are made up of the red blood cells (which are the overwhelming majority of the formed elements), white blood cells, and platelets. A very thin band will separate the plasma from the red blood cells. This is the volume of white blood cells and platelets present. The amount of red blood cells is known as the hematocrit

Blood/Plasma Volume Calculations •Calculate treatment dose •TPE and RBC Exchange replacement fluid volumes •Cytoreduction and PBSC collections •Determine patient tolerance/safety Calculating % of extracorpreal volume - The amount of blood outside the patient's body at any given time - Should not exceed 15% of patient's total estimate During pregnancy, a woman may develop a slight expansion in the blood volume than the normal RBC count as the body prepares for catering to the growing fetus inside the mother's womb. It is called pseudoanemia of early pregnancy- which is part of the normal changes in the woman's body Not only increase red cells in about 20% of red blood cells. It leads to many stages and it also leads you to serious problems. It also increases the volume of plasma, which eventually leads to the weakening of red blood cells, so it can cause normal anemia in pregnancy but its hemoglobin goes down in the pregnancy phase The typical volume of AS RBCs including additive solution is 300-400 mL. Each unit contains approximately 50-80 g of hemoglobin (Hgb) or 160-275 mL of red cells, depending on the Hgb level of the donor, the starting whole blood collection volume, and the collection and processing methods

Is Red Blood Cell Volume Greater Than Plasma Volume In

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to demonstrate reduced blood volume in preeclampsia compared with nonproteinuric gestational hypertension and normal pregnancy by use of independent measures of red blood cell and plasma volumes. STUDY DESIGN: Red blood cells labeled with a nonradioactive stable isotope of chromium and Evans' blue were infused in subjects with preeclampsia or gestational. Measure red blood cell mass and plasma volume when repeated hematocrit levels exceed 52% in males and 47% in females. However, data from the Polycythemia Vera Study Group showed that if the hematocrit value is 60% or higher, the red blood cell mass is always increased; formal red blood cell mass and plasma volume studies are unnecessary in. Anemia is defined as a decrease in the circulating red blood cell mass to below age-specific and gender-specific limits. In normocytic anemias, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is within defined. Plasma is the liquid portion of blood. About 55% of our blood is plasma, and the remaining 45% are red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets that are suspended in the plasma. Plasma is about 92% water. It also contains 7% vital proteins such as albumin, gamma globulin and anti-hemophilic factor, and 1% mineral salts, sugars, fats.

Maternal blood volume increases during pregnancy, reaching a maximum of 30% at approximately 28-32 weeks of gestation. Plasma volume increases from 40-70 ml/kg which represents a rise of 40%. The different rate of increase in blood and plasma volume accounts for the relative anemia of pregnancy Hematocrit (packed cell volume What percent Red Blood Cells are in a blood sample Venipuncture Use a needle put it into a blood vessel and draw out blood sample Centrifugation separates Plasma (Top) Anticoagulant White Blood Cells and Platelets(middle) Red Blood Cells(Bottom) b/c of density Animia - paack cell vomume decreases More plasma Less red cells Polycythemia - pack cell volume. The RBC indices has three parts: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), which is the average red blood cell size; mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), which is the amount of hemoglobin per red blood cell Blood volume is a measurement of the volume, or amount of space, that the blood takes up in a given person. This includes both red blood cells and plasma; it is not limited to one particular part of blood. Maintaining a normal volume of blood is very important as it carries oxygen and essential nutrients throughout the body

Cardiovascular Physiology of Pregnancy Circulatio

  1. At 6 weeks of gestation, the blood plasma volume is already increased by approximately 10-15%. The blood becomes more liquid, and the concentration of cells in it decreases. The plasma volume increases to 30-50% greater than pre-pregnancy volume by term, but the red blood cell volume is only increased by 20-30%
  2. Double red cell donation. During double red cell donation, two units of red cells are collected. Red cells carry oxygen to all parts of the body. Red cells are typically given to people with sickle cell anemia or significant blood loss due to trauma or surgery. A red cell donation is typically transfused within days, so the need for this.
  3. The kidney plays a pivotal role in the regulation of plasma by controlling the plasma volume and red blood cell mass. This is controlled when the kidneys either retain water or allow water to be expelled and also balancing the amount of sodium and other vital ions that are either kept or lost in the urine
  4. An RBC count is the number of red blood cell per a particular volume of blood. It may be reported in millions of cells per microliter (mcL) of blood or in millions of cells per liter (L) of blood. The normal range can sometimes vary by population. Many reference values will be far higher in high-altitude cities like Denver and far lower in.
  5. Red blood cells have a unique structure. Their flexible disc shape helps to increase the surface area-to-volume ratio of these extremely small cells. This enables oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse across the red blood cell's plasma membrane more readily. Red blood cells contain enormous amounts of a protein called hemoglobin. This iron.

Blood is a mixture of cells and plasma. The packed cell volume (PCV) is a measurement of the proportion of blood that is made up of cells. The value is expressed as a percentage or fraction of cells in blood. For example, a PCV of 40% means that there are 40 millilitres of cells in 100 millilitres of blood. Red blood cells account for nearly. The blood to plasma ratio determines the concentration of the drug in whole blood compared to plasma and provides an indication of drug binding to erythrocytes. The blood to plasma ratio protocol is adapted from a method by Yu et al., 2005 1. Test compound is spiked into fresh heparinized whole blood, reference red blood cells and reference plasma Because the hematocrit is a percentage of red blood cells, as compared to the total volume of blood, any increase or decrease in plasma volume affects the hematocrit.A patient with a severe burn loses huge amounts of plasma from damaged capillaries. As a result, the vascular space loses fluid in relation to cellular elements and the patient's hematocrit will be significantly increased Prophylactic fresh frozen plasma (FFP) infusions may be necessary to replenish ADAMTS13 activity and maintain a successful pregnancy in expectant mothers with congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (cTTP), according to a study published in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.. A germline mutation in the ADAMTS13 gene is the primary cause of cTTP

Anemia During Pregnancy American Pregnancy Associatio

Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization, or the formation of antibodies against non-self-antigens on RBCs, may occur after exposure through transfusion or pregnancy. These antibodies may be clinically significant in both settings, leading to delayed hemolytic or serologic transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) Blood loss, conditions where there is increased destruction of red blood cells, leukemia, and diseases that interfere with red blood cell production will exhibit a low hematocrit. It must also be noted that overhydration, or an increase in plasma volume for any reason, can result in a relative decreased hematocrit value Plasma is needed to circulate red blood cells that deliver oxygen throughout the body. Hespan is used to treat or prevent hypovolemia (decreased blood plasma volume, also called shock) that may occur as a result of serious injury, surgery, severe blood loss, burns, or other trauma You may have heard of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. But plasma is also part of your blood. One of its jobs is keeping your blood pressure in a healthy range

Reduction in Unnecessary Red Blood Cell Folate Testing by

Product. Description. Packed red blood cells (PRBCs) are made from a unit of whole blood by centrifugation and removal of most of the plasma, leaving a unit with a hematocrit of about 60%. One PRBC unit will raise the hematocrit of a standard adult patient by 3% (or about 1%/mL/kg in a child - 12%/25 kg with the standard 300 mL PRBC unit) THROMBATE III delivers 50x more antithrombin (AT) than the same amount of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) 1. The amount of AT in a 10-mL vial of THROMBATE III equals the IU of AT in 500 mL of FFP 1. A vial of THROMBATE III contains concentrated AT factor, while a bag of FFP contains AT as well as varying amounts of other plasma components. 13 11.1: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) TPE removes large-molecular-weight substances such as harmful antibodies from the plasma. It is usually carried out using an automated blood cell separator to ensure fluid balance and maintain a normal plasma volume. This may require the insertion of a femoral or jugular line to allow adequate blood flow

Maternal Physiological Changes During Pregnancy, Labor

  1. The dehydration deficit and maintenance fluid volumes should be gradually replaced over a 24-hour period with an isotonic crystalloid solution, while fresh whole blood is used to replace the red blood cells. The volume of whole blood infused should be considered when calculating the volume of crystalloid for infusion
  2. Blood consists of RBCs, white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets suspended in a fluid portion called plasma. The hematocrit is a ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the volume of all these components together, called whole blood. The value is expressed as a percentage or fraction. For example, a hematocrit value of 40% means that there are.
  3. Note: Blood consists of a liquid portion called plasma and a solid portion (the formed elements) that includes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. When blood components are separated by centrifugation, the white blood cells and platelets form a thin layer, called the buffy coat, between the plasma and the red blood cells, which accounts for about 1% of the total blood volume
  4. ister KELL SENSITIZATION: o Causes severe fetal anemia due to 2 mechanisms: fetal splenic sequestration of sensitized red cells and suppression of the fetal erythropoiesis

Emerging understanding and measurement of plasma volume

  1. than red blood cell mass [13, 15, 16], and diagnostic cut-offs for anemia vary During physiological human pregnancy, plasma volume increases on average more than 1 litre as compared to non.
  2. The maternal blood volume expansion occurs at a larger proportion than the increase in red blood cell mass, which results in physiologic anemia and hemodilution. Other physiologic changes include increased tidal volume, partially compensated respiratory alkalosis, delayed gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility, and altered activity of.
  3. Blood volume increases progressively during pregnancy until the last month. The volume of plasma increases 40-50 percent and red blood cell mass 20-30 percent, creating a need for increased iron.
  4. Dr. Amos Grunebaum, MD, FACOG is a Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and among the world's leading authorities on fertility and pregnancy. Read Dr. Amos' full bio, the book about him Lessons in Survival: All About Amos, and a fictionalized account of his father's life in the novel, Through Walter's Lens. In addition to his current work, Dr. Amos is using his vast experience to launch.
  5. Tube Size Draw Volume (mm) (mL) Type Colour Label type 367841 13x75 2.0 P 367856 13x75 3.0 P 367861 13x75 4.0 P 367844 13x75 4.0 P 367863 13x100 6.0 P 366643 16x100 10.0 ST 367899 13x100 6.0 P BD CLINICAL ADVANTAGE: K2EDTA is the anticoagulant of choice in specimen collection and blood cell
  6. Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and platelets (~45% of volume) suspended in blood plasma (~55% of volume).. Color: Red Shelf Life: 21/35 days* Storage Conditions: Refrigerated Key Uses: Trauma, Surgery Whole Blood is the simplest, most common type of blood donation. It's also the most flexible because it can be transfused in its original form, or used to help multiple people.

Plasma volume expansion across healthy pregnancy: a

  1. Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a syndrome defined by a normocytic normochromic anemia with severe reticulocytopenia and marked reduction or absence of erythroid precursors from the bone marrow. 1 Abnormalities from PRCA are limited to the red cell lineage; abnormalities in other cell lines usually reflect another concurrent disorder
  2. Red cell antibodies in pregnancy What red cell antibodies are clinically significant (maternal and fetal) during pregnancy? exchange (see 7.1.3), except that plasma is removed by the blood centre to increase the haematocrit to 0.70-0.85 and it is always irradiated. Blood for neonatal small volume ('top-up') transfusio
  3. Reticulocyte: The youngest of the circulating red cells, normally they comprise about 1% of the red cell population. They are increased in response to bleeding, or hemolysis, or in response to treatment with B 12, iron, of folic acid. Decreased in the presence of a suppressed or otherwise abnormal bone marrow, aplastic anemia, pure red cell
  4. abnormal cells o Instruments then calculates the volume of RBCs (and plasma if needed )to be removed), and stipulate the volume of replacement RBC units of the needed based on the specified hct o Replacement unit's hct: ~55% for AS (Adsol) units ~71% for washed unit
  5. A blood volume test (also called a plasma volume test or a red cell mass test) is a nuclear lab procedure used to measure the volume (amount) of blood in the body. The test also measures the volume of plasma and of red cells in the blood
  6. The percentage of whole blood volume that is made up of red blood cells is called the hematocrit and is a common measure of red blood cell levels. White Blood Cells (also called leukocytes) White blood cells protect the body from infection. They are much fewer in number than red blood cells, accounting for about 1 percent of your blood

The real issue is not why most males have more blood than most females, which is easily answered (as others have already done) based on differences in body size. The real issue is why males have more higher blood values relative to body size than. Plasma volume begins to increase as early as 6 weeks of gestation and increase to more than 50% of the progestation level, 21 mainly to content the demands of the new vascular bed and to guard against blood loss occurring at delivery. 22 However, red cell mass, which driven by an increase in maternal erythropoietin production, also increases. The percentage of red blood cells in relation to total blood volume. Erythrocytosis, polycythemia vera, shock, altitude, pregnancy, dehydration. Anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, adrenal insufficiency, blood loss, hemolytic reactions. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) Determines cell size and can help to classify anemia


Volume 2, Chapter 13

  1. Seven non-pregnant ewes were also studied. Pregnancy resulted in a 31% greater red cell volume in mid-gestation (21.0 1.3 vs 16.1 0.8 ml/kg, p < 0.05), but no significant change in plasma or blood vol- ume. However maternal blood volume was correlated with uterine blood flow (r2 ¼ 0.22, p ¼ 0.05) and fetal size (r2 ¼ 0.20, p ¼ 0.02)
  2. otransferase (ALT, SGPT) Albu
  3. and using I-131-tagged albu
  4. Correction of the deficit in blood volume with crystalloid volume expanders will generally maintain hemodynamic stability, while transfusion of red cells is used to improve and maintain tissue oxygenation . Each unit of packed red blood cells (RBCs) contains approximately 200 mL of red cells and, in an adult, will raise the hematocrit by.
  5. The three main types of cells in blood are red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. 92% of blood plasma is composed of water and the other 8% is composed of proteins, metabolites and ions. The density of blood plasma is approximately 1025 kg/m 3 and the density of blood cells circulating in the blood is approximately 1125 kg/m 3
  6. B12, folate deficiencies, or cold agglutinin disease. A higher MCV value indicates that the red blood cells are larger than the average size
  7. Red cell indices include 3 tests - Mean Cell Volume (MCV), Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH), and Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC). They are also called the Absolute values for Red Blood Cells. The Values of MCV, MCH, and MCHC are derived from the values of Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume (PCV) or Hematocrit and Red Cell Count

Blood Volume • All Source Pregnanc

Erythrocytosis is the condition in which the red blood cells increase abnormally in mass and number. It may be due to a mutation in the gene which controls the red blood cells size and number. Erythrocytosis can also be due to polycythemia. During erythrocytosis, the red blood cell concentration increases in volume The other difference between PRP is the number of red and white cells. Keep in mind that most of the red cells are already removed in the making of PRP: whole blood is 94% red cells as compared to only 5% red cells in PRP. However, even though the remaining red cells are greatly diminished, it is believed that any red cells may still cause. Abstract. The major components of blood volume are the red cell mass (RCM) and plasma volume (PV), which adapt responsively to a variety of demands. Very short-term stresses, such as hemorrhage and hypoxia, can be met by temporary volume shifts in the circulation, from the autologous splanchnic blood bank, and by trans-mural capillary. Severe dehydration reduces the volume of plasma in the blood, which causes a reduction in total blood volume. When you're dehydrated, the total number of red blood cells is not impacted. Instead, the reduction of the blood volume increases the volume of packed red blood cells, causing increased hematocrit levels. mell razak / Getty Image

Anemia in pregnancy by dr shabnam naz

Plasma Volume Expansion in Pregnancy: Implications for

Hematocrit (HCT) and packed cell volume (PCV) are used to measure red blood cell mass. An increase in red blood cell mass is equivalent to erythrocytosis and a decrease indicates an anemia.Because HCT and PCV are affected by changes in water, the HCT and PCV may be high due to water losses in a dehydrated animal (depending on the extent of dehydration) The liquid part of blood is known as plasma which constitutes about 55% of the blood volume (2). Remaining 45% is made up by the blood cells. Remaining 45% is made up by the blood cells. Plasma is approximately 92% water and rest includes suspended particles such as proteins, minerals, electrolytes, hormones etc ( 3 ) Causes include: Trauma. Destruction of red blood cells due to hemolytic anemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, or an abnormality in the red blood cell membrane. Kidney disease causes your kidney to produce too little erythropoietin, which can lead to low blood cell counts. Failure of your bone marrow or other damage done to your bone marrow Red blood cells are able to change shape to permit passage through small capillaries that connect arteries with veins. Normal red blood cells survive about 120 days and are then ingested by phagocytic cells in the liver and kidneys. RBCs comprise about 40% of total blood volume; the RBC count is the number of red blood cells per cubic. 1 to 4 X 10 8 nucleated cells/kg 1.0 to 1.5 L volume HSCT D R L R R L R R D D D D D D D D Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Preparative Regimen. 10/27/2005 Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Processing and Transplantation Sources of Donors Syngeneic donor Allogeneic donor plasma Removal of red blood cells

Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy - Wikipedi

1 Tormey CA, et al., Improved plasma removal efficiency for therapeutic plasma exchange using a new apheresis platform. Transfusion 2010; 50 (2): 471-477.. 2 Calculation: 1/.87 = 1.15 3 Calculations: Anticoagulant volume = 1,000 mL/9 (inlet:AC ratio of 10 = 9 parts blood to 1 part AC) = 111 m Plasma is the fluid component of the blood that carries other blood cells, nutrients, and clotting factors throughout our bodies. Plasma is 90 percent water and makes up more than half of total blood volume The proportion of red cells provided as whole blood has steadily decreased over the last decade. In most large hospitals (greater than 10,000 surgical procedures per year), 98% of red cell preparations are provided as packed cells .Whole blood is recommended to replace large volume acute blood loss , but in 1990 less than 3% of the eight million red-cell-containing blood components were.